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PbA (Lead Acid) NiMH & NiCd Li-ion & Li-Poly

Gilbert N. Lewis pioneered lithium batteries in 1912, the first non-rechargeable cells were created in the early 1970's. Lithium does not suffer from common battery maintenance issues like memory and self discharge, and is environmentally safe. Sony commercialized the first lithium-ion battery in 1991.

Wikipedia pages for Li-ion, Li-poly, and Lithium(element).

FactBites pages for Lithium, Lithium-ion-battery

Google groups sci.chem.electrochem.battery, [1] -> Volume Li-ion Manufacturing in the US, Li-ion Charge efficiency

New Lithium Manganese Oxide Cathode Materials with High Voltage and Capacity Developed

How It's Made

There is a Science Channel episode of How It's Made about lithium batteries, in particular about their use in Hybrids and EVs, I don't recognize these cells:

Episode 13: Bicycle Helmets, Lithium Batteries, Car Brakes, Aluminum
Making a lithium-metal-polymer battery requires reduction of a 5 kilo lithium ingot into a foil sheet 20 to 40 microns thick and 2 kilometers long. This sheet is rolled up onto itself, compressed and metalized. These batteries are used to power electronic equipment as well as both hybrid and totally electric vehicles.

Reply to my inquiry for more information:

Thanks for your note! Unfortunately, although we do have a "How It's Made" fan site, it doesn't include information from all of the episodes. The producer's web site does, however, and indicates the following contact regarding the batteries:
Program 13 - Series #1
Lithium batteries
Corporation Avestor
You will see how making a lithium-metal-polymer battery, they reduce a 5 kilo lithium ingot into a tin sheet 20 to 40 microns and 2 kilometers long. This sheet is rolled up onto itself, compressed and metalized. These batteries are used to power electronic equipment as well as both hybrid and totally electric vehicles.

BEVs using Lithium

Recent News

Military Use

GS Battery - Large Cells

These are the cells used in the Eliica.

Valence - Unique

  • 2006.07.28
  • Valence safety video.
  • - small ?18650 saphion cells
    • 1.2Ah, 3.2v nominal, 42 gms, $8/cell, 15C to 23C peak
    • 10s $080 10 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x3 scooter 32.0v 3.6Ah~3miles $240, voltage to high
    • 08s $064 08 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x3 scooter 25.6v 3.6AH~3miles $192
    • 08s $064 08 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x4 scooter 25.6v 4.8AH~4miles $256
    • 08s $064 08 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x5 scooter 25.6v 6.0AH~5miles $320
    • 12s $096 12 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x3 scooter 28.8v 4.8AH~5miles $288 (9s4p), ideal voltage
    • 12s $096 12 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x6 scooter 28.8v 9.6AH~9miles $576 (9s8p) 3.024Kg (6.7lb.)
    • $230 charger
    • config $ C# $/Cell Crate-Peak Volts pre-build hobby flight packs
    • 4s3p $130 12 $10.83 54-84A 12.7v - x2 scooter 25.6v 3.6Ah~3miles $260
    • 4s2p $090 08 $11.25 36-56A 12.7v - x2 scooter 25.6v 2.4Ah~2miles $180
    • 4s1p $045 04 $11.25 18-28A 12.7v -
    • 3s3p $100 09 $11.11 54-84A 9.6v - x3 scooter 28.8v 3.6Ah~3miles $300, Faster
    • 3s2p $068 06 $11.33 36-56A 9.6v - x3 scooter 28.8v 2.4Ah~2miles $204
    • 3s1p $034 03 $11.33 18-28A 9.6v -
  • - Valence ucharge - drop in PbA replacements.
  • - Solectria Forces with PbA, Ni, and Valence Li
  • Valence makes U-Charge Saphion Lithium Ion batteries in a few common sizes, they are intended to be "12v" drop in replacements for Lead-Acid and have integrated management. Most notable these batteries are less likely to burn when abused, an important new feature for Li.
    • According to Marc Kohler of Valence, their U1 will do 300A, not only 150A per U-Charge_Datasheet. Their U24 will do 600A instead of 200A, and will do 200A "up a long hill", though these higher rates have not been confirmed. Also per an EVDL thread the 12V modules are U1, 40AH - $650 US ($1.35/WH); U24, 100AH - $1600 US ($1.33/WH); U27, 130AH - $1900 US ($1.22/WH); and $800 for display and charger., Datasheet, New High Rate versions
    • 2005.08.26 -

Kokam - Large Cells

LTC GAIA - Large Cells

As seen in use by Dr. Andrew Frank and team in the PlugInPartners video.

  • - Lithium Technology Corporation (LTC)
    • Nominal voltage 3.60 V
    • Recommended charge method : Constant current - constant voltage
    • Maximum charge voltage : 4.20 V
    • Operating temperature : -30°C / +60°C
    • Recommended charge temperature : 0°C / +40°C
    • Storage and transport temperature : -30°C / +60°C
    • Cycle life at 20°C and 100% DOD : 400 cycles to 80% nominal capacity (0.5 C charge; 0.5 C discharge)

1000 cycles to 60% nominal capacity

Standard Cells IEC id (mm) Weight AC Imp. 1 kHz Specific energy - density Specific power Power density
7.5 Ah UHP-341450 INR34/176 320 g < 2.0 mOhm 70 Wh/kg - 180 Wh/l 1500 W/kg 3750 W/l
27 Ah HP-601300 INR60/158 980 g < 1.0 mOhm 100 Wh/kg - 264 Wh/l 950 W/kg 2100 W/l
45 Ah HP-602050 INR60/232 1550 g < 0.5 mOhm 105 Wh/kg - 284 Wh/l
5 Ah HE-271000 INR27/100 125 g < 15 mOhm 144 Wh/kg - 340 Wh/l
10 Ah HE-341450 INR34/176 320 g < 5.0 mOhm 113 Wh/kg - 300 Wh/l
60 Ah HE-602050 INR60/232 1500 g < 0.5 mOhm 150 Wh/kg - 380 Wh/l

Safety features

  • Rupture disc, shutdown separator, Do not overcharge, Do not incinerate, Do not dispose of in fire, Dispose of properly. Observe national regulations, Reference temperature 20°C,
  • All specifications are subject to change without notice The information contained herein is for reference only and does not constitute a warranty of performance

ThunderSky - Large Cells

There is also a Thundersky battery rep in Vancouver B.C.

E-one Moli - Milwaukee 28v

  • EVDL, [13]
    • -, [14], [15]
    • ... company now produces a total of 1.8 million cells per month for such things as cellphones, lap-top computers and other portable data terminals, and normally does about $100 million in business per year. But Broom forecast that by supplying the power-tool industry E-One could potentially double its total business in three years. Broom said that the deal with Milwaukee means E-One will produce an extra 150,000 battery cells a month at the Maple Ridge plant, which employs 430 people. "We're looking at plans to quadruple production by the end of the year"...
    • Using lithium manganese oxide (LiMN204) in the positive electrode of the new IMR26700 cell allows for a Li-ion cell with higher discharge rates than ever before. The IMR26700 cell can deliver currents in excess of 100A.
      By eliminating cobalt from the IMR26700 cell it is possible to produce a much larger cell, while providing exceptional safety characteristics. Further developments of the IMR26700 cell will provide fast charge capability, allowing cells to be fully charged in as little as 15 minutes.
      The introduction of the IMR26700 will allow Molicel to enter new markets previously only served by lead acid, nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal-hydride batteries, such as electric bicycles, power tools and potentially electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. Manganese oxide lithium-ion batteries are more environmentally friendly than those traditional battery systems.
      To support the launch of the new IMR26700, Molicel has implemented in a new high-speed production line capable of producing 1.5million cells per month. Molicel began shipping the IMR26700 cells in 2004.'
    • Specifications of the IMR26700 Cell
      • Cell Type = IMR26700 Manganese
      • Size = 26.4mm diameter; 70mm length
      • Weight = 100g
      • Capacity = 3Ah
      • Standard Charging Voltage = 4.2V – 2.5V
      • Energy Density = 285Wh/l
      • Power Density = 1500W/kg at 20 seconds
    • 1,500,000 cells/month is 4,500,000Ah * 3.7vpc = 13,500,000 Wh of capacity.
      • 13,500 kWh is enough to deliver 40,500 BEV miles (@3m/kWh) per month in cells.
      • 486 Thousand miles or 162,000kWh per year, of Battery Capacity.
      • It would cost $9,720 to charge that once at $0.06/kWh, just $0.02/mile.
      • That's about 2000 BEV/PHEV's with 250 miles or 10,000 with 50 miles of range.

A123 Systems - DeWalt 36v

DEWALT® 36v line Available for ordering @, Will ship in late May

  • Battery Pack, $159.00
    • DEWALT® exclusive nano-phosphate lithium ion cells provide high power for corded performance; Deliver 2-3x more run-time vs. 18V; Offer long battery life & durability: 2,000 recharges; Lightweight design is 2.4 lbs; same weight as an 18V battery; No memory & virtually no self-discharge for maximum productivity & less downtime; Battery Weight 2.6 lbs.; BLAAND DC9360; MSRP: $290.00
  • Charger, $89.00
    • 1-Hour charging provides fast charging for minimum downtime; Battery fuel gauge indicates how much charge is in the battery; DEWALT® 3-stage charging system provides maximum run-time and extends overall life of the battery; Cord wrap provides improved cord storage; Tool Weight 1.9 lbs.; Shipping Weight 3.0 lbs.; BLAAND DC9000; MSRP $156.00
  • WorkLight, $49.00
    • Flex-Neck design with lockable head clips allows for hands-free use and versatility to stand or hang the light; Wide angle beam of light provides more light than a conventional flashlight; 8 hours run-time on 1 charge; Xenon bulb provides an extra bright beam of light; Tool Weight 1.14 lbs.; BLAAND DC509; MSRP $90.00
  • Impact Wrench kit, $499 2 batteries, charger, case, wrench.

Sony - High Power

Toshiba - High Power


Altair Nano

  • - patent US 6689716 - ALTI
  • 2006.03.24 - The Lithium-Ion Car Altair Nanotechnologies plans to road test an advanced electric vehicle prototype.
  • Altair gets order for 1000kG of lithium titanate spinel electrode nanomaterials [21] [22] [23] [24]
    • Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. (NASDAQ: ALTI) and Toshiba have rather promising advanced Li-ion improvements which greatly increase their previously lacking Power Density and Cycle Life. Energy Density, Weight, and even high volume cost of about $500/kWh have been a reality for some time now.

Torqeedo - li-manganese

PSI - Phoenix Silicon International (Trading Company)

  • Nominal Capacity 12000 mAh
  • Minimum Capacity 11000 mAh
  • Charging Voltage 3.65 V
  • Typical Voltage 3.30 V
  • Cut-off Discharge Voltage 2.10 V
  • Charging Method CC/CV
  • Maximum Discharge Current 130A(continuous), 150A (18s pulse)
  • Maximum Charge Current 40A
  • Cycle Life (minimum) 500 cycles, 80% Capacity @1C
  • Operation Temperature Charge 0~45°c, Discharge -20~55°c
  • Storage Temperature -20~45°c
  • Energy Density 96 Wh/Kg, > 200 Wh/L
  • Power Density (100% SOC, 18s peak) 600 W/Kg, > 1236 W/L
  • Initial Internal Impedance 6 m ohm

Avestor LMP

Avestor LMP Batteries?

Misc from old site

Ryans Data

Here is my Li-ion Data for 18650 1.3Ah, LGQ863448H 1.05Ah, M08134B 1.05Ah cells, E-One Moli (Milwaukee) Cells.

Yet to migrate