|PbA (Lead Acid)||NiMH & NiCd||Li-ion & Li-Poly|
Gilbert N. Lewis pioneered lithium batteries in 1912, the first non-rechargeable cells were created in the early 1970's. Lithium does not suffer from common battery maintenance issues like memory and self discharge, and is environmentally safe. Sony commercialized the first lithium-ion battery in 1991.
 How It's Made
There is a Science Channel episode of How It's Made about lithium batteries, in particular about their use in Hybrids and EVs, I don't recognize these cells:
- Episode 13: Bicycle Helmets, Lithium Batteries, Car Brakes, Aluminum
- Making a lithium-metal-polymer battery requires reduction of a 5 kilo lithium ingot into a foil sheet 20 to 40 microns thick and 2 kilometers long. This sheet is rolled up onto itself, compressed and metalized. These batteries are used to power electronic equipment as well as both hybrid and totally electric vehicles.
Reply to my inquiry for more information:
- Thanks for your note! Unfortunately, although we do have a "How It's Made" fan site, it doesn't include information from all of the episodes. The producer's web site does, however, and indicates the following contact regarding the batteries:
- Program 13 - Series #1
- Lithium batteries
- Corporation Avestor
- You will see how making a lithium-metal-polymer battery, they reduce a 5 kilo lithium ingot into a tin sheet 20 to 40 microns and 2 kilometers long. This sheet is rolled up onto itself, compressed and metalized. These batteries are used to power electronic equipment as well as both hybrid and totally electric vehicles.
 BEVs using Lithium
- ACP tzero - Sony 18650's (6,800 of them)
- ACP EBox
- Tesla Motors Roadster
- Venturi Fetish Roadster
- Eliica Limo - #GS Battery - Large Cells
- http://www.killacycle.com #A123 Systems - DeWalt 36v
- http://www.proev.com Electric Imp Autocross - #Kokam - Large Cells
- EAA-PHEV:EDrive Prius PHEV - #Valence - Unique
- There are many more which I do not have listed yet... StandBy...
- EAA-PHEV:Insight_PHEV#Insight_EV_Conversion - #ThunderSky - Large Cells
- Mitsubishi Colt EV -  -  - hub motors
- Maya-100 -
- Volvo 3CC -
- There are numerous conversions using TS cells... StandBy...
- Victor Tikhonov of Portland Oregon used #ThunderSky - Large Cells and Maxwell Power Cache Ultracapacitors PC2500 in his AC 1991 Honda CRX HF.
- Elexceed     
- Jan. 10, 2006 - Ford Reflex Diesel hybrid concept car also taps the sun.
- 2000 mile range EV - EVDL thread to Stanford .pdf, seems like it's "old" news.
 Recent News
- 2008.04.23 - autobloggreen.com - Ancient Japanese company makes modern lithium ion battery with SILX "Double the energy capacity of a carbon-based negative electrode and dramatically improve cycle life"
- 2007.04.02 - paloaltoonline.com - Stanford professor receives $10 million grant from a Saudi university.
- 2008.02.15 - greencarcongress.com - Nissan Tests Next-Gen Li-Ion Packs in US
- 2007.12.18 - Stanford's nanowire battery holds 10 times the charge of existing ones
- 2007.10.08 - Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Testing by Ian of the ZEVAustralia!
- 2007.09.01 - Lithium Batteries Take to the Road
- 2007.06.07 - New Batteries Readied for GM's Electric Vehicle The technologies behind the battery packs for the GM Volt are being tested and could be ready within a year.
- 2006.06.22 - Higher-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries
- 2006.04.09 - Via sfeva & Gridable a new company polyplus with technical graphs and multiple Li flavors.
- 2006.03.22 - VoltaFlex & Rolltronics acquired by Seertech in Charlotte, NC
- 2006.02.04 - New ion age begins as quest for the perfect battery accelerates
- 2006.01.17 - Better batteries for hybrid cars?  Lithium-ion batteries, found today inside notebooks and cell phones, may power hybrid cars in five to 10 years if research at Sandia National Laboratories pays off.
- 2005.11.22 - The Lithium Economy - Why hydrogen might not power future vehicles and lithium-based batteries might.
- 2005.08.30 - Altair Nanotechnologies Aims to Fast Track Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Technology
- 2005.09.29 - Johnson Controls advanced lithium-ion development laboratory
-  Videos near top.
- 2005.09.20 - 2008 Prius Li Option Rumor 
- 2005.09.14 - Li thread - EVDL
- http://www.compactpower.com large format Lithium, 2006 production?
- http://www.coloradops.com more lithium
- http://www.gbp-battery.com more Li
 Military Use
- Need Zinc-Air Page
 GS Battery - Large Cells
These are the cells used in the Eliica.
 Valence - Unique
- 2006.07.28 http://www.engadget.com/2006/07/28/valences-less-explosive-lithium-ion-batteries
- Valence safety video.
- http://www.power-motion.com - small ?18650 saphion cells
- 1.2Ah, 3.2v nominal, 42 gms, $8/cell, 15C to 23C peak
- 10s $080 10 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x3 scooter 32.0v 3.6Ah~3miles $240, voltage to high
- 08s $064 08 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x3 scooter 25.6v 3.6AH~3miles $192
- 08s $064 08 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x4 scooter 25.6v 4.8AH~4miles $256
- 08s $064 08 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x5 scooter 25.6v 6.0AH~5miles $320
- 12s $096 12 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x3 scooter 28.8v 4.8AH~5miles $288 (9s4p), ideal voltage
- 12s $096 12 $08.00 18-28A 3.2v - x6 scooter 28.8v 9.6AH~9miles $576 (9s8p) 3.024Kg (6.7lb.)
- $230 charger
- config $ C# $/Cell Crate-Peak Volts pre-build hobby flight packs
- 4s3p $130 12 $10.83 54-84A 12.7v - x2 scooter 25.6v 3.6Ah~3miles $260
- 4s2p $090 08 $11.25 36-56A 12.7v - x2 scooter 25.6v 2.4Ah~2miles $180
- 4s1p $045 04 $11.25 18-28A 12.7v -
- 3s3p $100 09 $11.11 54-84A 9.6v - x3 scooter 28.8v 3.6Ah~3miles $300, Faster
- 3s2p $068 06 $11.33 36-56A 9.6v - x3 scooter 28.8v 2.4Ah~2miles $204
- 3s1p $034 03 $11.33 18-28A 9.6v -
- http://www.valence.com/ucharge.asp - Valence ucharge - drop in PbA replacements.
- http://www.austinev.org/evalbum/602.html - Solectria Forces with PbA, Ni, and Valence Li
- http://firstname.lastname@example.org/EV/valence.txt - interesting analysis of the pros and cons of using valence Li-ions in an EV today
- Cost about $2,500 each for a group 27 Valence Li-ion, 2000 cycles, BMS included in each block...
- Valence makes U-Charge Saphion Lithium Ion batteries in a few common sizes, they are intended to be "12v" drop in replacements for Lead-Acid and have integrated management. Most notable these batteries are less likely to burn when abused, an important new feature for Li.
- According to Marc Kohler of Valence, their U1 will do 300A, not only 150A per U-Charge_Datasheet. Their U24 will do 600A instead of 200A, and will do 200A "up a long hill", though these higher rates have not been confirmed. Also per an EVDL thread the 12V modules are U1, 40AH - $650 US ($1.35/WH); U24, 100AH - $1600 US ($1.33/WH); U27, 130AH - $1900 US ($1.22/WH); and $800 for display and charger. img371.imageshack.us/img371/5493/lith7in.jpg, Datasheet, New High Rate versions
- 2005.08.26 - wired.com
 Kokam - Large Cells
- 2006.02.27 - Kokam Announce Development of 1000-Mile (300 kWh) Range Vehicle Project, to use 5 units of a 200 Ah 81S1P system.
- http://www.kokamamerica.com/ contact info
- 100Ah Li-Poly 171Wh/kg (364Wh/L), 1kW/kg (1.95kW/L)
- http://www.enerdel.com/p_detail.html - EnerDel
- http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_e/latest_research/2004/20041203/20041203.html - Cost Reduction for Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery
- http://www.kokam.com/english/product/kokam_Lipo_01.html - cycles tests
 LTC GAIA - Large Cells
- http://www.lithiumtech.com - Lithium Technology Corporation (LTC)
- Nominal voltage 3.60 V
- Recommended charge method : Constant current - constant voltage
- Maximum charge voltage : 4.20 V
- Operating temperature : -30°C / +60°C
- Recommended charge temperature : 0°C / +40°C
- Storage and transport temperature : -30°C / +60°C
- Cycle life at 20°C and 100% DOD : 400 cycles to 80% nominal capacity (0.5 C charge; 0.5 C discharge)
1000 cycles to 60% nominal capacity
|Standard Cells||IEC id (mm)||Weight||AC Imp. 1 kHz||Specific energy - density||Specific power||Power density|
|7.5 Ah UHP-341450||INR34/176||320 g||< 2.0 mOhm||70 Wh/kg - 180 Wh/l||1500 W/kg||3750 W/l|
|27 Ah HP-601300||INR60/158||980 g||< 1.0 mOhm||100 Wh/kg - 264 Wh/l||950 W/kg||2100 W/l|
|45 Ah HP-602050||INR60/232||1550 g||< 0.5 mOhm||105 Wh/kg - 284 Wh/l|
|5 Ah HE-271000||INR27/100||125 g||< 15 mOhm||144 Wh/kg - 340 Wh/l|
|10 Ah HE-341450||INR34/176||320 g||< 5.0 mOhm||113 Wh/kg - 300 Wh/l|
|60 Ah HE-602050||INR60/232||1500 g||< 0.5 mOhm||150 Wh/kg - 380 Wh/l|
- Rupture disc, shutdown separator, Do not overcharge, Do not incinerate, Do not dispose of in fire, Dispose of properly. Observe national regulations, Reference temperature 20°C,
- All specifications are subject to change without notice The information contained herein is for reference only and does not constitute a warranty of performance
 ThunderSky - Large Cells
- lithium battery, 10 passenger bus delivered to Seattle. - $150,000
- For the 50 AH battery in quantities of 10 or more price quoted at $3 per AH.
- EVDL_Maillist:2003./6./896, EVDL_Maillist:2003./6./1180, EVDL_Maillist:2003./6./1438,  -
- EVComponents in Lacey WA @ $1.10/AH plus shipping
- EVolve Electrics in Colorado @ $1.40/AH including all shipping costs
There is also a Thundersky battery rep in Vancouver B.C.
 E-one Moli - Milwaukee 28v
- EVDL, 
- http://www.molienergy.com - http://www.e-one.com.tw, , 
- ... company now produces a total of 1.8 million cells per month for such things as cellphones, lap-top computers and other portable data terminals, and normally does about $100 million in business per year. But Broom forecast that by supplying the power-tool industry E-One could potentially double its total business in three years. Broom said that the deal with Milwaukee means E-One will produce an extra 150,000 battery cells a month at the Maple Ridge plant, which employs 430 people. "We're looking at plans to quadruple production by the end of the year"...
- Using lithium manganese oxide (LiMN204) in the positive electrode of the new IMR26700 cell allows for a Li-ion cell with higher discharge rates than ever before. The IMR26700 cell can deliver currents in excess of 100A.
By eliminating cobalt from the IMR26700 cell it is possible to produce a much larger cell, while providing exceptional safety characteristics. Further developments of the IMR26700 cell will provide fast charge capability, allowing cells to be fully charged in as little as 15 minutes.
The introduction of the IMR26700 will allow Molicel to enter new markets previously only served by lead acid, nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal-hydride batteries, such as electric bicycles, power tools and potentially electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. Manganese oxide lithium-ion batteries are more environmentally friendly than those traditional battery systems.
To support the launch of the new IMR26700, Molicel has implemented in a new high-speed production line capable of producing 1.5million cells per month. Molicel began shipping the IMR26700 cells in 2004.'
- Specifications of the IMR26700 Cell
- Cell Type = IMR26700 Manganese
- Size = 26.4mm diameter; 70mm length
- Weight = 100g
- Capacity = 3Ah
- Standard Charging Voltage = 4.2V – 2.5V
- Energy Density = 285Wh/l
- Power Density = 1500W/kg at 20 seconds
- 1,500,000 cells/month is 4,500,000Ah * 3.7vpc = 13,500,000 Wh of capacity.
- 13,500 kWh is enough to deliver 40,500 BEV miles (@3m/kWh) per month in cells.
- 486 Thousand miles or 162,000kWh per year, of Battery Capacity.
- It would cost $9,720 to charge that once at $0.06/kWh, just $0.02/mile.
- That's about 2000 BEV/PHEV's with 250 miles or 10,000 with 50 miles of range.
- 2006.02.03 - From V-8 to V28™ Power! - Jesse James and the Monster Garage re-power a 1962 Chevrolet Bel Air with 384 Milwaukee V28™ Lithium-Ion batteries! That's 2,688 "26650" cells, 32 parallel packs at nearly 100 amps each and 12 such blocks in series for 336 volts. Scheduled to Air EVents 2006 04 10 on the Discovery channel.
- http://www.v28power.com/flash.htm - check out these adds Helicopter and Pitstop - 28v is perfect for User:Rjf/Tiger Scooter#Milwaukee V28 Pack, They are simply one of the or the most powerful tool battery I have seen 28 volts at 3 amphours. They are made for 40 amps all day, and peaks over 100 amps. 2.2 Lbs. 
- User:Rjf/Tiger Scooter#Milwaukee V28 Pack
- http://www.rbrc.org - Battery Recycler.
 A123 Systems - DeWalt 36v
- 2006.09.08 - Nano-phosphate lithium-ion electric plug-in hybrid bike update seattle area
- 2006.08.25 - technologyreview.com - Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries A123 Nail Test video
- 2006.08.24 - Dissecting DeWalt 36V Packs (A123 Systems)
- A123 Reference materials from the EAA-PHEV:Hybrids-Plus project.
- 2006.05.19 - technologyreview.com - More Powerful Hybrid Batteries A123 Systems has built a powerful, lightweight lithium-ion battery pack that could lower the price of hybrid vehicles.
- EVDL A123 Systems sponsored KillaCycle
- http://groups.yahoo.com/group/gridable-hybrids/message/2295 M1 cells in DeWalt powertools.
- 2005.11.02 - A123Systems Launches New Higher-Power, Faster Recharging Li-Ion Battery Systems   
- A123Systems li-ion technology
- Form factor: 26650
- nominal voltage: 3.35v
- max voltage 3.6v
- capacity: 2.2ah
- internal resistance 10-12mohm
- power density at 5 sec pulse: 3500w/kg
- Continuous discharge = 30, 189W, 2,700 W/kg
- Long pulse = 80, 240W, 3,480 W/kg
- Instant pulse = 100, 344W, 4,990 W/kg
- energy density: 110wh/kg
- weight: 70g/cell
- Response from A123
DEWALT® 36v line Available for ordering @ tylertool.com, Will ship in late May
- Battery Pack tylertool.com, $159.00
- DEWALT® exclusive nano-phosphate lithium ion cells provide high power for corded performance; Deliver 2-3x more run-time vs. 18V; Offer long battery life & durability: 2,000 recharges; Lightweight design is 2.4 lbs; same weight as an 18V battery; No memory & virtually no self-discharge for maximum productivity & less downtime; Battery Weight 2.6 lbs.; BLAAND DC9360; MSRP: $290.00
- Charger tylertool.com, $89.00
- 1-Hour charging provides fast charging for minimum downtime; Battery fuel gauge indicates how much charge is in the battery; DEWALT® 3-stage charging system provides maximum run-time and extends overall life of the battery; Cord wrap provides improved cord storage; Tool Weight 1.9 lbs.; Shipping Weight 3.0 lbs.; BLAAND DC9000; MSRP $156.00
- WorkLight tylertool.com, $49.00
- Flex-Neck design with lockable head clips allows for hands-free use and versatility to stand or hang the light; Wide angle beam of light provides more light than a conventional flashlight; 8 hours run-time on 1 charge; Xenon bulb provides an extra bright beam of light; Tool Weight 1.14 lbs.; BLAAND DC509; MSRP $90.00
- Impact Wrench kit tylertool.com, $499 2 batteries, charger, case, wrench.
 Sony - High Power
- 90g, 50A, 2.5Ah, 26650 cells! 250Wh/L (100Wh/kg), ??kW/L (2kW/kg)
- http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/News/Press/200412/04-060E/ -Sony High Power
 Toshiba - High Power
- 19.1g, 30A, 0.6Ah, 250Wh/L (113Wh/kg), 10kW/L (4.5kW/kg)
- http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7081 - High Power, High Cycle Advancements - High surface area anode
- http://www.toshiba.co.jp/about/press/2005_03/pr2901.htm - PR - 60 sec recharge
- http://www.macnewsworld.com/story/article/41889.html - Toshiba Puts Nano-Material into Fast-Charging Battery
- http://neasia.nikkeibp.com/topstory/000881 - Another Article - LiCoO2-type (lithium cobalt oxide) positive electrode (cathode) - 150- 250Wh/L , 10kW/L
- Toshibas High-Rate (50C) Li, scheduled for 2006 production 
- http://www.nec-tokin.com/english/product/me/chisiki/li6.html - Manufacturing Process
- http://www.nec-tokin.com/english/search/search.php?select=all&query=Lithium&search=true&imageField2.x=0&imageField2.y=0 - Search
- http://www.nec-tokin.com/english/product/lithiumion/outline01.html - NEC Outline
- http://www.nec-tokin.com/english/product/me/chisiki/intro/index.html - Intro
 Altair Nano
- http://www.altairnano.com - patent US 6689716 - ALTI
- 2006.03.24 - The Lithium-Ion Car Altair Nanotechnologies plans to road test an advanced electric vehicle prototype.
- Altair gets order for 1000kG of lithium titanate spinel electrode nanomaterials    
- Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. (NASDAQ: ALTI) and Toshiba have rather promising advanced Li-ion improvements which greatly increase their previously lacking Power Density and Cycle Life. Energy Density, Weight, and even high volume cost of about $500/kWh have been a reality for some time now.
- 2006.02.08 - Altairnano and Electro Energy to Partner on Lithium-Ion Batteries - Green Car Congress
- 2006.01.18 - Altair Nano-based Lithium Battery for Hybrids A Step Closer
- Published in the September 2004 edition of the advanced energy industry standard, Journal of Power Sources "9,000 cycles"
- Yahoo Gridable msg Gridable_Maillist:2005./4./22
- Biz.Yahoo msg1
- Biz.Yahoo msg2
 Torqeedo - li-manganese
 PSI - Phoenix Silicon International (Trading Company)
- Nominal Capacity 12000 mAh
- Minimum Capacity 11000 mAh
- Charging Voltage 3.65 V
- Typical Voltage 3.30 V
- Cut-off Discharge Voltage 2.10 V
- Charging Method CC/CV
- Maximum Discharge Current 130A(continuous), 150A (18s pulse)
- Maximum Charge Current 40A
- Cycle Life (minimum) 500 cycles, 80% Capacity @1C
- Operation Temperature Charge 0~45°c, Discharge -20~55°c
- Storage Temperature -20~45°c
- Energy Density 96 Wh/Kg, > 200 Wh/L
- Power Density (100% SOC, 18s peak) 600 W/Kg, > 1236 W/L
- Initial Internal Impedance 6 m ohm
 Avestor LMP
 Misc from old site
- http://www.metricmind.com/battery.htm local copy
- http://www.guardian.co.uk/life/feature/story/0,13026,1423451,00.html - SlimCells
- http://www.splendidbattery.com - Numerous chemistries. See Cylindrical, Prismatic, for EV, Li Polymer
- http://www.batteryuniversity.com/partone-20.htm - Recycling batteries
 Ryans Data
Here is my Li-ion Data for 18650 1.3Ah, LGQ863448H 1.05Ah, M08134B 1.05Ah cells, E-One Moli (Milwaukee) Cells.